Many of the elements shown in the graph are classified into partially overlapping categories: Note that there are two breaks where the unstable elements technetium atomic number: These are both extremely rare, since on Earth they are only produced through the spontaneous fission of very heavy radioactive elements for example, uraniumthoriumor the trace amounts of plutonium that exist in uranium oresor by the interaction of certain other elements with cosmic rays.
Consequently, the state in which TNCs operate remains the only duty bearer of human rights and should ensure that companies under its jurisdiction comply with human rights. The aim of this article is to examine the extent to which Nigeria and South Africa comply with their obligations to ensure that TNCs in extractive industries operating within their borders promote and respect human rights.
Ultimately it is argued that the legal architecture in the countries under study does not satisfactorily shield people from the actions of TNCs.
In an attempt to remedy the situation, it is suggested that a way forward could be constructed on the following pillars: Though the points made in this article generally engage the human rights impacts of extractive industries in Nigeria and South African, the proposed solutions are generalisable to other societies in which these industries operate.
Accordingly, states party to a human rights treaty have the obligation to respect, protect and fulfil human rights. From this perspective, extractive industries are involved in various human rights violations in various developing countries,  including African countries.
This raises questions of the human rights responsibilities of TNCs. In this regard, as a result of their influence, TNCs also have direct human rights obligations.
The legal basis for such obligations can be found in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHRwhich urges "every individual and every organ of society In this context "every organ of society" could be interpreted to comprise of various types of non-state actors including TNCs.
For Henkin, the sentence is inclusionary and as such includes every person, companies, market and cyberspace. The current scope of what might be loosely called the international human rights law duties of TNCs is wide, but spread thinly and unevenly. It encompasses examples of supposed customary international law, treaty obligations, and so-called soft-law codes of conduct, guidelines, and compacts.
The actual legal cover these initiatives provide is meager or non-existent. The legal or quasi-legal duties imposed on corporations have some potential authority, but as yet they remain ill-defined and ineffective.
In short, the rudiments of an international legal framework may be discernible, but the legal content of the law is almost wholly absent. This view is echoed by the Maastricht Guidelines in which the state's obligation to protect also compels the state to protect against the violation of human rights by third parties, including TNCs.
The obligation to protect includes the State's responsibility to ensure that private entities or individuals, including transnational corporations over which they exercise jurisdiction, do not deprive individuals of their economic, social and cultural rights.
States are responsible for violations of economic, social and cultural rights that result from their failure to exercise due diligence in controlling the behaviour of such non-State actors.
The standard established by the Velasquez Rodrigues case is in line with international human rights standards,  which urge a state party to a human rights treaty to "respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognised in the present covenant [or treaty]".
This does not imply that we regard it as of less importance, but rather that the chosen focus for this article is on the host state's obligation to ensure the realisation of human rights.
Guided by traditional state obligations echoed by the Maastricht Guidelines mentioned earlier, the aim of this article is to explore the extent to which Nigeria and South Africa comply with their obligations to ensure that TNCs in extractive industries operating within their borders promote and respect human rights.
The focus on domestic law is also informed by the fact that at international level, the responsibility of corporations for the protection and promotion of human rights is based on non-binding instruments categorised as soft law and is still developing. Though there are various types of TNCs, the focus of this article is on extractive industries in Africa with special attention to Nigeria and South Africa.
Extractive industries can be defined as "processes that involve different activities that lead to the extraction of raw materials from the earth such as oil, metals, mineral and aggregatesand their processing and utilisation by consumers".
Therefore, it is vital to explore legal avenues to ensure that these resources do not become a "curse" for the population or do not lead to conflicts, to poverty, ill health and inequality as a result of their extraction.Ruminants are able to degrade and use fibrous feed as a source of energy and nutrients because of the presence of complex anaerobic microbiota in the rumen, composed mainly of .
Religious Beliefs in Africa - comparative info about the diverse religious systems in the living African world.
This website and its content is subject to our Terms and Conditions. Tes Global Ltd is registered in England (Company No ) with its registered office at 26 Red Lion Square London WC1R 4HQ. The Comparative Abundance Of The Elements - There are 92 naturally occurring elements, only 17 of them make up % of the earth's crust (including oceans and .
|Wood Carving||As wood is a less durable material than stone, fewer examples of wooden sculptures have survived from the earlier eras of art. Wood has also tended to be the medium of the artisan as fine artists and their clients have favoured more permanent materials such as stone and bronze.|
|Form as Carving||The rarest elements in the crust shown in yellow are rare due to a combination of factors:|
Abundance of the chemical elements by mass fraction or atomic fraction. Most abundances are expressed by mass fraction.
The abundance of hydrogen and helium in this cosmic distribution of the elements, proves all the elements were formed by nuclear fusion in the stars, for example the Sun.
Hydrogen is a basic material for which the other elements are gradually.