Synthesis in Writing A synthesis is a piece of writing that combines information from two or more sources. If a writer is explaining a concept or event, research from different sources can be synthesized to offer a well-rounded explanation of it. If a writer is arguing a point, her point can be emphasized by synthesizing several pieces of research that back her thesis.
This online book is designed as a concise but comprehensive synthesis of the HBES. Many readers will be interested to see the award-winning book by Sinthesis online Holmes and Gene Likens entitled, Hubbard Brook: Sinthesis online readers are directed to the book, Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem by Gene Likens as well as the series of detailed element monographs published in the journal Biogeochemistry Likens et al.
The synthesis is presented at the level of a graduate or advanced undergraduate student audience. The primary objective of the book is to introduce students and other prospective researchers to the current state of knowledge about the Hubbard Brook ecosystem.
The chapters have been developed by scientific experts on each of the topics studied in the HBES, and they will be updated and expanded as new knowledge and data are generated by the HBES — it is meant to be a living volume.
Links to the broader literature and to HBES data sets are provided to facilitate more detailed explorations. Teaching and learning exercises that utilize data from the HBES will be added as they are developed by our experts for academic use.
The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: Above about m in the HB valley, subalpine forest of red spruce and balsam fir and formerly mountain paper birch is dominant, especially on thinner, less fertile soils. Forest Biomass and Primary Productivity Biomass is the living and sometimes including recently dead organic material synthesized by plants and other organisms.
The accumulation of biomass in forests is greater than in other Earth biomes because the trees must effectively lift their leaves above their neighbors in order to compete for the light resource; hence, forest biomass provides the structural material that allows the plants to grow tall.
The biomass of trees in forests forms the three-dimensional structure in which all the other organisms are entrained and to which they are adapted for growth, survival and reproduction. Much of the energy and carbon stored in the forest resides in the biomass of the trees and understanding the factors regulating forest biomass and its accumulation is of fundamental importance to ecologists and foresters, alike.
Decomposition and Soil Carbon Sequestration Litter decomposition in forest ecosystems has been the subject of numerous studies, including several at Hubbard Brook.
Decay of aboveground litter is relatively easy to measure and interest in this topic originally revolved largely around ecological questions of mineral nutrient cycling. More recently the realization that forest soil is among the largest carbon pools on earth, and that changes in soil C stock could contribute to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration, has further stimulated interest in decomposition and its sensitivity to human-accelerated environmental change.
Here, we consider the linked processes of plant litter decomposition and soil C sequestration at HB. Forest Management and Ecosystem Dynamics The Hubbard Brook study was originally established to evaluate the influence of forests and forest management on the hydrology of montane forest catchments.
This topic is covered in detail in the Hydrology chapter and is not repeated here. The hydrology objective was soon expanded to include element cycling and water quality. Hydrology The HBEF was established in for the purpose of studying the effects of forest management on streamflow and water quality, building upon pioneering work from other sites that established the efficacy of the paired small watershed approach Bates and Henry The principle underlying the small watershed approach is that for a catchment with relatively watertight bedrock thus minimal subsurface losswater can leave the watershed only by stream discharge or evapotranspiration ET.
Nitrogen Cycling Nitrogen is generally regarded as the nutrient that is most limiting to plants in northern forests Vitousek and Howarth However, decades of high atmospheric N deposition due to human activity in industrialized regions has altered the natural N cycle in ways that are only partially understood.
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Many temperate forests are believed to be at or near N saturation, a point where adverse effects on ecosystem health ensue Aber et al. Thus, improved understanding of the forest N cycle is important for designing optimal policies of N management.
However, many of the long-term measurements collected at the site have become valuable climate change indicators Table 1. Perhaps any of these records would not be all that informative on their own, but combined they provide fairly convincing evidence of climate change at the HBEF that is compatible with regional trends in the northeastern U.
Roots Roots play a variety of roles in forest ecosystems. Although we usually think of the key role of roots actually mycorrhizae in acquiring soil resources, they also serve to anchor the plant and as a place for storing nutrients and carbohydrates. Studying the structure and function of tree root systems requires brute strength or clever techniques because they are difficult to access.
At Hubbard Brook considerable attention has been applied to understanding root systems of the trees because they are crucial to forest ecosystem production and biogeochemistry.
Here we provide a brief overview of root studies at HB. Phosphorus Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient in all biological systems, and can be the nutrient most limiting to biological production in many aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
In fact, recent evidence from Hubbard Brook indicates that P is the most limiting nutrient to primary productivity of the northern hardwood forest. Element behavior and interactions The stream draining a small watershed provides an integrated measurement of nutrient flux from the complex forest landscape.
At Hubbard Brook, the role of forest vegetation in regulating biogeochemical cycles is evaluated by manipulating the forest ecosystem at the scale of the small watershed. Such studies provided novel insights into nutrient cycles in northern hardwood forest ecosystems; this led naturally to further mechanistic studies that would open up the watershed black box for a look inside.
Understory Vegetation Botanists, ecologists and woodland trampers have always been fascinated by the complex understory vegetation of forest ecosystems.Noun: synthesis (syntheses) sin-thi-sis. The process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds) The combination of ideas into a complex whole - synthetic thinking ; Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect) - deduction, deductive reasoning.
Update September 18, Science Synthesis Executive Summary and Recorded Presentations Now Available. The executive summary of the Synthesis of Science to Inform Land Management within the Northwest Forest Plan Area has been published by the Pacific Northwest Research Station and is available online.
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