View Full Essay Words: His publication and involvement in publishing impressive accomplishments for an African-American man in the United States in the 's Woodward, While there was a great deal of variation among the artists, they were joined to each other by a common rejection of mainstream American culture and some dabbling in Eastern religious ideas. Though the trials of his wife and writers like her are an interesting cultural reference to the time period they ultimately detract from your paper.
Wlodkowski and Margery B. Ginsberg Research has shown that no one teaching strategy will consistently engage all learners. The key is helping students relate lesson content to their own backgrounds.
To be effective in multicultural classrooms, teachers must relate teaching content to the cultural backgrounds of their students. According to the research, teaching that ignores student norms of behavior and communication provokes student resistance, while teaching that is responsive prompts student involvement Olneck There is growing evidence that strong, continual engagement among diverse students requires a holistic approach—that is, an approach where the how, what, and why of teaching are Ginsberg outline and meaningful Ogbu To that end, we have developed a comprehensive model of culturally responsive teaching: It accommodates the dynamic mix of race, ethnicity, class, gender, region, religion, and family that contributes to every student's cultural identity.
The foundation for this approach lies in theories of intrinsic motivation. Before we outline our framework for culturally responsive teaching, we will address the bond of motivation and culture, and analyze some of the social and institutional resistance to teaching based on principles of intrinsic motivation.
Understanding these relationships provides a clearer view of the challenges we must overcome if we are to genuinely transform teaching and successfully engage all students. Motivation Is Inseparable from Culture Engagement is the visible outcome of motivation, Ginsberg outline natural capacity to direct energy in the pursuit of a goal.
Our emotions influence our motivation. In turn, our emotions are socialized through culture—the deeply learned confluence of language, beliefs, values, and behaviors that pervades every aspect of our lives.
For example, one person working at a task feels frustrated and stops, while another person working at the task feels joy and continues. Yet another person, with an even different set of cultural beliefs, feels frustrated at the task but continues with increased determination.
What may elicit that frustration, joy, or determination may differ across cultures, because cultures differ in their definitions of novelty, hazard, opportunity, and gratification, and in their definitions of appropriate responses.
Thus, the response a student has to a learning activity reflects his or her culture. While the internal logic as to why a student does something may not coincide with that of the teacher, it is, nonetheless, present. And, to be effective, the teacher must understand that perspective.
Rather than trying to know what to do to students, we must work with students to interpret and deepen their existing knowledge and enthusiasm for learning. From this viewpoint, motivationally effective teaching is culturally responsive teaching. Locked in Mid-Century Most educators with whom we have worked would agree that there is a strong relationship between culture and motivation, and that it only makes sense to understand a student's perspective.
Why, then, do we have such difficulty acting this way in the classroom? One major reason is that we feel very little social pressure to act otherwise. The popular media and structural systems of education remain locked in a deterministic, mechanistic, and behavioristic orientation toward human motivation.
As a result, our national consciousness assumes there are many people who need to be motivated by other people. Secondary education is influenced a great deal by the practices of higher education, and both levels tend to follow the precepts of extrinsic reinforcement.
Teaching and testing practices, competitive assessment procedures, grades, grade point averages, and eligibility for select vocations and colleges form an interrelated system.
This system is based on the assumption that human beings will strive to learn when they are externally rewarded for a specific behavior or punished for lack of it. Schools and colleges successfully educate a disproportionately low number of low-income and ethnic minority students Wlodkowski and Ginsberg Because the importance of grades and grade point averages increases as a student advances in school, it is legitimate to question whether extrinsic motivation systems are effective for significant numbers of students across cultures.
We can only conclude that, as long as the educational system continues to relate motivation to learn with external rewards and punishments, culturally different students will, in large part, be excluded from engagement and success in school.
Changing Consciousness About Motivation It is part of human nature to be curious, to be active, to initiate thought and behavior, to make meaning from experience, and to be effective at what we value. These primary sources of motivation reside in all of us, across all cultures. When students can see that what they are learning makes sense and is important, their intrinsic motivation emerges.
We can influence the motivation of students by coming to know their perspective, by drawing forth who they naturally and culturally are, and by seeing them as unique and active.
Sharing our resources with theirs, working together, we can create greater energy for learning. Intrinsic systems of motivation can accommodate cultural differences.Before we outline our framework for culturally responsive teaching, we will address the bond of motivation and culture, and analyze some of the social and institutional resistance to teaching based on principles of intrinsic motivation.
Ginsberg is Research Associate, RMC Research Corporation, Writer Square, Ste. , Nov 09, · Benjamin Ginsberg Kenneth A. Shepsle PART 1: FOUNDATIONS CH 1: Five Principles of Politics CHAPTER OUTLINE A.
Making Sense of Government and Politics What Is Government? Forms of Government AM GOV - CH 1: Five Principles of Politics; AMERICAN GOVERNMENT: Power and Purpose 9th ed.
How is Ginsberg's sexuality expressed in his poems and what message is conveyed in his use of lewd sexual description? Ginsberg's sexuality is a chief example of the way in which the poet was censured and exiled from mainstream, respectable poetry, exemplified by the institutionalized academy.
W 10 Ginsberg C8 Outline The election has passed and all the attention is now turning to the changes that will be occurring this year.
Who voted, who didn't, and . - Allen Ginsberg, Covert Patriot Allen Ginsberg is, without a doubt, most famous for his poem "Howl" which he published in October of through City Lights Books in San Francisco.
"Howl", like much of his other poetry, is an intensely personal and also very complex poetic expression lacking rhyme and, to many people, also lacking reason. Dec 09, · "Howl" and "Guernica" Outline The paper demonstrates the ways in which both pieces of art contemplate and express multiple themes, including those of religion, morality, happiness, life-affirmation, and freedom.