The Revolution of in the German Lands and central Europe "Germany" prior to having been a confederation of thirty-nine individually sovereign Empires, Kingdoms, Electorates, Grand Duchies, Duchies, Principalities and Free Citieshad a movement for a single parliament in and many central European would-be "nations" attempted to promote a distinct existence for their "nationality".
The Revolutions of Commentary The revolutions of were a "turning point in modern history that modern history failed to turn. Though utter failures themselves, the revolutions inspire much more discussion. Consider the following four points: Afterthe European powers seemed incapable of united action to maintain the status quo, probably because the revolutions of weakened the regimes in the eyes of their people.
Secondly, the revolutions failed to bring about any significant change.
In France, the December presidential election brought Louis Napoleon, nephew of the former emperor, into office; it took him less than three years to consolidate absolute power. In Prussia, the promised assembly had little power and was constituted by the aristocratic elite.
The final two points emerge from here: The revolutions probably failed due to lack of organization. In Austria, for example, the revolts in Prague, Vienna, and Budapest maintained no communication among them, allowing the Austrian army to attend to each in isolation, without a united front.
Finally, the return of conservative and reactionary forces was probably due to the middle class. Another reason why the revolutions failed was because moderate liberals of the middle class feared the radicalism of the workers, preventing any type of lasting alliance.
Therefore, when radicals took control of the revolutions in Paris and in eastern Europe, the middle class liberals turned their backs, preferring absolute rule and law and order, to the uncertainty of radical revolution.As this is also a personal responsibility, whatever risks I shall run I should like to attempt a moment’s reflection on the Marxist concept of contradiction, in respect to a particular example: the Leninist theme of the ‘weakest link ‘..
Lenin gave this metaphor above all a practical meaning. Event. Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors.
Manifesto of the Communist Party. A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of communism.
All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Tsar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies. Western Civilization. European History & Its Impact on the World.
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The Thirty & Seven Years Wars / Military History & War. The European Revolutions of Essay - The revolutions of were widespread and affected about 50 countries in Europe, considering the previously separate lands of Germany and Italy.
These revolutions were extremely violent and costly. Great were the hopes and expectations of European Jews when the walls of the ghettoes came down. It was a long drawn-out process, and conditions varied from country to country.