Healthy relationships require that we become aware of our perception and its possible subjective colouring in our judgements of people and situations. For example, I may tend to evaluate an action of a person I dislike as negative, even though that person had done it with positive interest in my good.
Saul McLeodpublished How do we attach meaning to other's behavior or our own? This is called attribution theory. For example, is someone angry because they are bad-tempered or because something bad happened?
Heider believed that people are naive psychologists trying to make sense of the social world. People tend to see cause and effect relationships, even where there is none! There were two main ideas that he put forward that became influential: Dispositional vs Situational Attribution 1.
Attribution and interpersonal perception Attribution Dispositional attribution assigns the cause of behavior to some internal characteristic of a person, rather than to outside forces. When we explain the behavior of others we look for enduring internal attributions, such as personality traits.
This is known as the fundamental attribution error. For example, we attribute the behavior of a person to their personality, motives or beliefs. Situational Attribution The process of assigning the cause of behavior to some situation or event outside a person's control rather than to some internal characteristic.
When we try to explain our own behavior we tend to make external attributions, such as situational or environment features. They say that we tend to do this when we see a correspondence between motive and behavior. For example, when we see a correspondence between someone behaving in a friendly way and being a friendly person.
The correspondent inference theory describes the conditions under which we make dispositional attributes to the behavior we perceive as intentional. It is an alternative term to dispositional attribution. So what leads us to make a correspondent inference? Jones and Davis say we draw on five sources of information: If a behavior is freely chosen it is believed to be due to internal dispositional factors.
Behaviors low in sociable desirability non conforming lead us to make internal dispositional inferences more than socially undesirable behaviors. For example, if you observe a person getting on a bus and sitting on the floor instead of one of the seats.
This behavior has low social desirability non conforming and is likely to correspond with the personality of the individual. He developed a logical model for judging whether a particular action should be attributed to some characteristic dispositional of the person or the environment situational.
The term covariation simply means that a person has information from multiple observations, at different times and situations, and can perceive the covariation of an observed effect and its causes.
He argues that in trying to discover the causes of behavior people act like scientists. More specifically they take into account three kinds of evidence. If her friend smokes, her behavior is high in consensus.
If only Alison smokes, it is low. If Alison only smokes when she is out with friends, her behavior is high in distinctiveness. If she smokes at any time or place, distinctiveness is low. If Alison only smokes when she is out with friends, consistency is high.
If she only smokes on one special occasion, consistency is low. Our subject is called Tom. His behavior is laughter. Tom is laughing at a comedian.
Consensus If everybody in the audience is laughing, the consensus is high. If only Tom is laughing consensus is low. Distinctiveness If Tom only laughs at this comedian, the distinctiveness is high. If Tom laughs at everything, then distinctiveness is low. Consistency If Tom always laughs at this comedian the consistency is high.
If Tom rarely laughs at this comedian, then consistency is low.A Schematic Model of Dispositional Attribution in Interpersonal Perception Glenn D. Reader Illinois State University The model of dispositional attribution to be proposed here is intended to introduce determinants of the perception of behavior.
Start studying Interpersonal Communication and Perception. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Causal attribution theory. Ways to improve interpersonal perception skills. Be aware of barriers. Interpersonal perception is an area of research in social psychology which examines the beliefs that interacting people have about each other.
This area differs from social cognition and person perception by being interpersonal rather than intrapersonal, and thus requiring the .
Start studying Vocab Ch. 4, Chapter 4: Interpersonal Perception, Quiz 4, Test 1 Chapter 4. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Attribution theory is concerned with how and why ordinary people explain events as they do.
Heider () believed that people are naive psychologists trying to make sense of the social srmvision.com: Saul Mcleod. Fritz Heider (February 19, – January 2, ) was an Austrian psychologist whose work was related to the Gestalt school. In he published The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, which expanded upon his creations of balance theory and attribution srmvision.comality: Austria.