The rest of Europe would suffer from lower economic growth, too. However the economic losses they face would be much lower. These are the main results of a recent study conducted by the Ifo Institute on behalf of Bertelsmann Stiftung.
Chemistry in its element: Brian Clegg Many countries are honoured in the periodic table. Usually these place names reflect where their discoverer worked. But despite the number of elements first isolated in England - ten were found at the Royal Institution in London alone - there is no Englandium, Unitedkingdium or Brittanium.
However, there is europium, which allows for the possibility of a UK discoverer.
Europium is a lanthanide, one of those unfamiliar elements sitting outside the main structure of the periodic table. With atomic number 63, it inhabits the bar of elements that squeeze numerically between barium and hafnium.
The British connection here is English scientist Sir William Crookes, who worked both in chemistry and physics. Crookes is probably best remembered for his work with discharge tubes.
This produced an unearthly glow on the glass at the end of the tube. Crookes called this effect a cathode ray. It was eventually shown to be caused by a stream of electrons, and the Crookes tube was the ancestor of traditional TV screens and computer monitors. But Crookes was also an active chemist.
He discovered the element thallium and is credited by some with the discovery of our topic today, europium. In the late s, Crookes noticed a new line in spectroscopic analysis of a mineral containing ytterbium and samarium. Crookes believed he had spotted a new element - so in a sense discovered europium, but never isolated it.
History-of-science expert Patricia Fara draws a parallel between the discoveries of europium and penicillin. If you are listening to this podcast on a computer with a traditional colour monitor, europium will be enhancing your view of the Chemistry World website. When colour TVs were first developed, the red pixels were relatively weak, which meant the whole colour spectrum had to be kept muted.
But a phosphor doped with europium proved a much better, brighter source of red and is still present in most surviving monitors and TVs that predate the flat screen revolution. Doping is something of a speciality for europium. Doping involves adding a relatively small amount of a material to another to change its properties.
As well as the red glow from the valency three version of europium, its valency two salts produce a blue radiance. These are both combined with a third phosphor to produce white light in compact fluorescent bulbs. Another phosphorescent role for europium, where the name is particularly apt, is as an anti-forgery mark on Euro bank notes.
In fluorescence, a material absorbs relatively high energy light such as ultraviolet and gives off a lower frequency in the visible range, making the substance unnaturally bright.Sep 10, · The invention relates to selective isolation of yttrium and europium salts from the concentrate of luminophores, which was extracted by an inorganic acid, .
Executive Summary: RECLAIM’s main objective was the reclamation of indium, gallium, yttrium and europium Photovoltaics, Solid-State Lighting and Electronics waste. Europium is an element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
This Future Brief from Science for Environment Policy presents an overview of research into aquaculture’s impacts, and considers how it could develop in harmony with environmental goals.
The EU’s Blue Growth Strategy 1 identifies. Research Summary: The Francesconi lab investigates the chemistry of technetium (Tc) and the lanthanides. As Tcm, technetium is the most widely used isotope in the nuclear medicine clinic for diagnosis of disease.
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